The German Thai Link

Facts and Details

 
 
Germany
Thailand

Map

Background

As Europe's largest economy and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro. A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. Thailand is currently facing armed violence in its three Muslim-majority southernmost provinces.

Area
[km²]

Total
Land
Water
357.021
349,223
7,798
Total
Land
Water
514,000
511,770
2,230
Climate temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Highest Mountan Zugspitze 2,962 m Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
Natural resources iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite
Environment current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal ; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Population 82,431.390 65,444,371

Age
structure

0-14 years
15-64 years
over 65 years
14.4%
66,7%
18,9%
Female
Male
48.7%
51.3%
Female
Male
49.1%
50.9%
Female
Male
58.8%
41.2%
0-14 years
15-64 years
over 65 years
23.9%
68.6%
7.5%
Female
Male
48.9%
51.1%
Female
Male
50.6%
49.4%
Female
Male
54.5%
45.5%
Population change rate
Growth rate
Birth rate
Death rate
0.0%
0.833%
1,.06%
Growth rate
Birth rate
Death rate
0.87%
1.57%
0.7%
Infant
mortality
0.416% 2,048%
Life expectancy at birth [Years]
Total
Male
Female
78.65
75.66
81.81
Total
Male
Female
71.57
69.39
73.88
Ethnic groups
German
Turkish
Other
91,5%
2,4%
6,1%
Thai
Chinese
Other
75%
14%
11%
Religions Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3% Buddhism 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christianity 0.7%, other 0.1%
Languages German Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Country name Federal Republic of Germany Kingdom of Thailand
Capital Berlin (the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years, with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several ministries even after parliament moves in 1999 ) Bangkok
Goverment type federal republic constitutional monarchy
Adminstrative divisions

16 states (Laender, singularóLand)

Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural)

Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Independence since 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991

1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

Economy overview
Agriculture
Industry
Services
1 %
31 %
68 %
Germany's affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest in the world - has become one of the slowest growing economies in the euro zone. A quick turnaround is not in the offing in the foreseeable future. Growth in 2001-03 fell short of 1%, rising to 1.7% in 2004. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany's aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Germany to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. In the short run, however, the fall in government revenues and the rise in expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU's 3% debt limit.
Agriculture
Industry
Services
9 %
44.3 %
46.7 %
Thailand has a well developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and welcomes foreign investment. Thailand has fully recovered from the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis and was one of East Asia's best performers in 2002-04. Increased consumption and investment spending and strong export growth pushed GDP growth up to 6.9% in 2003 and 6.1% in 2004 despite a sluggish global economy. The highly popular government's expansionist policy, including major support of village economic development, has raised concerns about fiscal discipline and the health of financial institutions. Bangkok has pursued preferential trade agreements with a variety of partners in an effort to boost exports and maintain high growth, and in 2004 began negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement with the US. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took 8,500 lives in Thailand and caused massive destruction of property in the southern provinces of Krabi, Phangnga, and Phuket.
Labor
Total
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Unemployment
42.63 M
2.8 %
33.4 %
63.8 %
10.6 %
Total
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Unemployment
36.43 M
49 %
14 %
37 %
1.5 %
GDP (official exchange rate)
Total
Per capita
Real growth
Inflation
$ 2,890 B
$ 31,400
2.2 %
1.7 %
Total
Per capita
Real growth
Inflation
$ 197 B
$ 9,100
4.8 %
5.1 %
Industries among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles tourism; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Agriculture products westernópotatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry; easternówheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; pork, beef, chickens, milk, hides rice, cassava (tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans
Exports machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances
Exports-Partners France 10.3%, US 8.8%, UK 8.3%, Italy 7.2%, Netherlands 6.2%, Belgium 5.6%, Austria 5.4%, Spain 5% (2004) US 15.9%, Japan 13.9%, China 7.3%, Singapore 7.2%, Malaysia 5.4%, Hong Kong 5.1% (2004)
Imports machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels
Imports-Partners France 9%, Netherlands 8.3%, US 7%, Italy 6.1%, UK 5.9%, China 5.6%, Belgium 4.9%, Austria 4.2% (2004) Japan 23.6%, China 8.6%, US 7.6%, Malaysia 5.8%, Singapore 4.4%, Taiwan 4.1% (2004)
Currency 1 Euto = 100 Cent 1 baht (B) = 100 satang
Transportation resources [km]
Highways
Railways
Waterways
230,735
46.142
7.300
Highways
Railways
Waterways
57.403
4.071
4.000
Ports and harbors Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha, Songkhla
Airports 331 (with Runways over 3047m: 13) 56 (with Runways over 3047m: 7)
Disputes international none separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities. Significant differences remain with Burma over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers. Ethnic Karens from Burma flee into Thailand to escape fighting between Karen rebels and Burmese troops resulting in Thailand sheltering about 118,000 Burmese refugees in 2004
Drugs source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; illicit transit point for heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in amphetamine production for regional consumption; increasing indigenous abuse of methamphetamine

International
Crisis Group
documents

 

Islam and identity in Germany
PDF
766K

 

Southern Thailand: Insurgency, not jihad
PDF
880K
Thailand's emergency degree: No solution
PDF
970K
Southern Thailand: The impact of the coup
PDF
910K

 


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28.03.2007 16:18

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